Rankings have most often been conducted by magazines, newspapers, websites, governments, or academics. In addition to ranking entire institutions, organizations perform rankings of specific programs, departments, and schools. Some rankings evaluate reframing organizations fifth edition pdf within a single country, while others assess institutions worldwide.
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The subject has produced much debate about rankings’ usefulness and accuracy. The expanding diversity in rating methodologies and accompanying criticisms of each indicate the lack of consensus in the field. Further, it seems possible to game the ranking systems through excessive self-citations. Several organizations produce worldwide university rankings, including the following. All of these, along with other global rankings, primarily measure the research performance of universities rather than their teaching.
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While some rankings attempt to measure teaching using metrics such as staff to student ratio, the Higher Education Policy Institute has pointed out that the metrics used are more closely related to research than teaching quality, e. Staff to student ratios are an almost direct measure of research activity”, and “The proportion of PhD students is also to a large extent an indication of research activity”. Many rankings are also considered to contain biases towards the natural sciences and, due to the bibilometric sources used, towards publication in English-language journals. Some rankings, including ARWU, also fail to make any correction for the sizes of institutions, so a large institution is ranked considerably higher than a small institution with the same quality of research. Some compilers, notably QS, THE and U.
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