Please forward this error screen to 216. Further documentation is available here. Conjugated polymers have attracted an increasing amount of attention in recent years for various organic electronic devices because of organic chem as a second language pdf potential advantages over inorganic and small-molecule organic semiconductors. Chemists can design and synthesize a variety of conjugated polymers with different architectures and functional moieties to meet the requirements of these organic devices.
This review concentrates on five conjugated polymer systems with 1D and 2D topological structures, and on one polymer designing approach. Finally, we summarize the current progress for conjugated polymers and propose future research opportunities to improve their performance in this exciting research field. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. Flowback and produced waters are extremely complex matrices composed of geogenic water and chemical additives. The geogenic fraction may contain large amounts of total dissolved solids as well as various hydrocarbons, organic acids, alcohols, radionuclides, and metals. The additives may include surfactants, gels, scale inhibitors, biocides, and friction reducers. Recently, it has been suggested that these produced waters could potentially represent a new water source in areas of water scarcity.
Before the use of these waters can be considered for applications outside the oil field, the chemical composition must be better characterized. However, due to the complex nature of these matrices, many methods originally designed for surface and groundwater matrices may not be suitable. In addition, many organic chemicals remain yet unidentified: targeted approaches for organic chemical analysis alone will be insufficient for complete organic chemical characterization. We assessed current trends and emerging technologies in analytical chemistry and reviewed and their applicability to flowback and produced waters. In addition, we propose under-utilized approaches that may serve as potential solutions to address the issues created by the complex matrices inherent to flowback and produced waters. Like other hydrocarbons, alkynes are generally hydrophobic but tend to be more reactive.
Other reactions are listed below. For example, in a molecule with an -ene and an -yne group, addition occurs preferentially at the -ene. By virtue of this bond angle, alkynes are rod-like. Correspondingly, cyclic alkynes are rare. The remaining sp orbital on each atom can form a sigma bond to another atom, for example to hydrogen atoms in the parent acetylene. The two sp orbitals project on opposite sides of the carbon atom.
Internal alkynes feature carbon substituents on each acetylenic carbon. The acidic hydrogen on terminal alkynes can be replaced by a variety of groups resulting in halo-, silyl-, and alkoxoalkynes. Greek prefix system without any additional letters. Examples include ethyne or octyne. In parent chains with four or more carbons, it is necessary to say where the triple bond is located. 3-octyne or oct-3-yne when the bond starts at the third carbon. When no superior functional groups are present, the parent chain must include the triple bond even if it is not the longest possible carbon chain in the molecule.
Ethyne is commonly called by its trivial name acetylene. Locants are chosen so that the numbers are low as possible. The final “-e” disappears if it is followed by another suffix that starts with a vowel. Commercially, the dominant alkyne is acetylene itself, which is used as a fuel and a precursor to other compounds, e. Most other industrially useful alkyne derivatives are prepared from acetylene, e. Depending on catalysts and conditions, alkynes add one or two equivalents of hydrogen.
The largest scale application of this technology is the conversion of acetylene to ethylene in refineries. C is general for silanes, boranes, and related hydrides. Non-carbon reagents also undergo cyclization, e. Cycloaddition processes involving alkynes are often catalyzed by metals, e. Oxidative cleavage of alkynes proceeds via cycloaddition to metal oxides. The reactions of alkynes with certain metal cations, e. Terminal alkynes, including acetylene itself, can react with water to give aldehydes.