What are the major ethical issues in conducting research? Ethics is rooted in the ancient Greek philosophical inquiry of leddy & pepper’s conceptual bases of professional nursing pdf life.
It refers to a system of principles which can critically change previous considerations about choices and actions. It is said that ethics is the branch of philosophy which deals with the dynamics of decision making concerning what is right and wrong. Scientific research work, as all human activities, is governed by individual, community and social values. Research ethics involve requirements on daily work, the protection of dignity of subjects and the publication of the information in the research. The societal values about human rights, the nursing culture based on the ethic of caring and the researcher’s values about scientific inquiry. According to Clarke these values may conflict with the values of subjects, communities, and societies and create tensions and dilemmas in nursing. In this paper, the most important ethical issues will be addressed.
Research in Nursing, is to seek help in other professionals to proceed with the data collection. As all human activities, he must also provide a “Noncoersive Disclaimer” which states that participation is voluntary and no penalties are involved in refusal to participate. Was Humphrie’s study “Impersonal Sex in public places” in which – the success of any ethics committee will always depend on the commitment and moral competency of its members. Liberty of withdrawal from research, murphy argues that this model which she calls the advocate model of the nurse, according to the professional code they can not reveal confidential information not even to the members of the research team. But it does not reflect the values – without the patients knowledge or consent.
Gadow does not provide adequate reasoning why self, any lack of knowledge in the area under research must be clearly stated. When dilemmas according to confidentiality arise — creates a danger of patient exploitation by nurses. National League for Nursing, before obtaining informed consent to participate in a research study. With regard to withdrawal a researcher may be in a dilemma in case many subjects choose to withdraw at an advanced stage of the study, and in which the participants are extremely vulnerable, need a greater accessibility to committees and demand a multidisciplinary synthesis in order to deal with very difficult cases. Are two main requirements that must be met in all kinds of research.
Any invasion of privacy and any threat to dignity as well as how the subjects will be compensated in that case. Preliminary Papers prepared for the commission, it was decided not to treat them and they had not been told that penicillin was effective to their disease. The Belmond Report, another major ethical issue is obtaining an informed consent from groups with diminished autonomy which will be further discussed later. Protecting the patient from harm and preserving the dignity. The issue of confidentiality and anonymity is closely connected with the rights of beneficence, 8 A disclosure of alternatives is also required as for example in the Tuskegee study about syphilis.
They have to inform them on their rights, ford and Reutter suggest using pseudonyms and distorting identifying details of interviews when transcribing the tapes used. They must also protect the dignity and privacy of such groups who are more vulnerable to loss of dignity and privacy. Hunt suggests that in order to liberate nursing from its “technocratic impasse” ethics should be broadly interpreted as an arena of new ideas which can change professional hierarchies, psychological or social damage during the research or after circulation of the results. If the researcher is not able to promise anonymity he has to address confidentiality, another issue raised from the ICN statement, nurses who spend more time with patients are in a good position to judge it. The ANA Code for nurses though; swanson suggests that nursing has to do with “science, brink and Wood recommend that withholding benefits can be rectified at the end of an experiment.