Cost-efficiency analysis of seedling introduction vs. Direct seeding is a cost-effective practice but has potential for improvement using pre-germinated seeds. Higher cost vs value 2015 pdf of introduced seedlings compensates for the higher cost of the practice.
Growth rate in height was higher for direct-seeded than nursery-grown seedlings. Among recovery strategies for secondary and degraded tropical forests, the introduction of tree species is one of the most commonly used. However, very few comparisons have been made in the literature in terms of the ecological and economic costs and benefits between these two techniques. Relative growth rate in diameter was similar in seedlings introduced by either technique. No predation of seeds or seedlings was registered. The cost-efficiency analysis revealed that, considering the costs of production and plantation, introducing seedlings was almost two times more expensive compared to direct seeding. Results suggest that recovery of this species is feasible with combined practices depending upon the life stage of the plant and the conditions of the microsite.
Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. Calculations of these costs can be made at the point of connection to a load or to the electricity grid. This type of calculation assists policymakers, researchers and others to guide discussions and decision making. While calculating costs, several internal cost factors have to be considered.
Fuel costs can vary somewhat unpredictably over the life of the generating equipment, due to political and other factors. It is often taken as a proxy for the average price that the generating asset must receive in a market to break even over its lifetime. The levelized cost is that value for which an equal-valued fixed revenue delivered over the life of the asset’s generating profile would cause the project to break even. This can be roughly calculated as the net present value of all costs over the lifetime of the asset divided by the total electrical energy output of the asset.
Note: Some caution must be taken when using formulas for the levelized cost, as they often embody unseen assumptions, neglect effects like taxes, and may be specified in real or nominal levelized cost. For example, other versions of the above formula do not discount the electricity stream. However, care should be taken in comparing different LCOE studies and the sources of the information as the LCOE for a given energy source is highly dependent on the assumptions, financing terms and technological deployment analyzed. Thus, a key requirement for the analysis is a clear statement of the applicability of the analysis based on justified assumptions.
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In particular, LCOE ignores time effects associated with matching production to demand. Dispatchability, the ability of a generating system to come online, go offline, or ramp up or down, quickly as demand swings. The extent to which the availability profile matches or conflicts with the market demand profile. Thermally lethargic technologies like coal and nuclear are physically incapable of fast ramping. Capital intensive technologies such as wind, solar, and nuclear are economically disadvantaged unless generating at maximum availability since the LCOE is nearly all sunk-cost capital investment. Despite these time limitations, leveling costs is often a necessary prerequisite for making comparisons on an equal footing before demand profiles are considered, and the levelized-cost metric is widely used for comparing technologies at the margin, where grid implications of new generation can be neglected. EEC has caused the electricity demand of many countries to remain flat or decline.
Considering only the LCOE for utility scale plants will tend to maximise generation and risks overestimating required generation due to efficiency, thus “lowballing” their LCOE. The whole of system life cycle cost should be considered, not just the LCOE of the energy source. LCOE is not as relevant to end-users than other financial considerations such as income, cashflow, mortgage, leases, rent, and electricity bills. LCOE of dispatchable sources such as fossil fuels or geothermal. This is because introduction of fluctuating power sources may or may not avoid capital and maintenance costs of backup dispatchable sources.